|PAT REVISED SYLLABUS ENGLISH
(As per 10th class Grammar of H.P. Board of School Education) :-
A variety of questions involving the use of particular structures with a context. Text types used include cloze, gap-filling, sentences-completion; sentence-reordering, dialogue-completion and sentencetransformation ( including combining sentences). The Grammar syllabus will include the following areas:
- Use of non-finites.
- Sentence connectors: as since, while, then, just, because, just, unit.
- Causes with what, where and how.
- Past Tense.
- Modals: can, could, may, must, might.
- Effects of current and Magnets: Potential, Potential difference, Ohm’s law; Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors; Power dissipation due to current; Inter relation between P,V.I and R. Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying wire, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electro magnetic induction. Induced potential difference, induced current. Alternating current,; frequency of AC, Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
- Natural Phenomena: Convergence and divergence of light. Images formed by a concave mirror; related concepts; centre of curvature; principal axis. Optic centre, focus, focal length.
- Refraction; laws of refraction: Image formed by a convex lens; functioning of a lens in human eye; problems of vision and remedies. Applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Appreciations of concept of refraction; velocity of light; refractive index twinkling of stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of light.
- Conservation of natural resources: Managements of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. People’s participation. Chipko movement. Legal perspectives in conservation and international scenario.
- Source of Energy: Different forms of energy, leading to different sources for human use: fossil fuels, solar energy, biogas, wind, water and tidal energy, nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources.
Unit-1 Chemical substances (Nature & Behavior)
- Acid, Bases, and salts: General properties, examples and uses.
- Chemical reactions: Some important chemical compounds.
Types of chemical of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction in terms of gain and loss of oxygen and hydrogen.
- Metals and Non-metals:- Brief discussion of basic metallurgical processes. Properties of common metals. Elementary idea about.
- Carbon Compounds:- Carbon compounds, elementary idea about bonding. Saturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids ( no preparation, only properties).
- Periodic classification of elements:- Gradations in properties Mendeleev periodic table.
- REAL NUMBERS
1. Euclid's division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic-statements
2. after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples. Proofs of results-irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating / nonterminating recurring decimals.
1. Polynomials:- Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference to quadratic polynomials, Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.
2. Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables:- Pair of linear equations in two variables; Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions inconsistency; Algebraic conditions for number of solutions; Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically by substitution by elimination and by cross multiplication; Simple situational problems must be included; Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations may be included.
3. Quadratic Equations:- Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminate and nature of roots. Problems related to day to day activities to be incorporated.
4. Arithmetic Progression:- Motivation for studying AP. Derivation of standard results of finding the nth term and sum of first n terms.
1. Trigonometric Ratios:- Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° & 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° & 60°. Relationships between the ratios.
2. Trigonometric Identities:- Prro and applications of the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
3. Heights and Distances:- Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.
- COORDINATE GEPMETRY
1. Lines (in two dimensions):- Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations. Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two points and section formula ( internal). Area of a triangle.
1. TRIANGLES:- Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
* If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect to other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
* If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
* If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
* If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
* If one angles of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
* If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
* The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides.
* In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
* In a triangle, if the square of one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle.
Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer and closer to the point.
* The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
* The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.
Division of a line segment in a given ration (internally). Tangent to a circle from a point outside it. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
1. AREAS OF PLANE FIGURES:- Motivate the area of a circle ; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter/ circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° & 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken).
2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES:-
(i) Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinder, cones. Frustum of a cone.
(ii) Problems involving concerting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken)
1. STATISTICS:- Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.
2. PROBABILITY:- Classical definition of probability. Connection with probability as given in Class IX. Simple problems on single events, not using set notation.